北京市朝阳区酒仙桥路14号兆维华灯大厦A1-3门三层A328室
info@agricorpchina.com
010-6435-4066
北京市朝阳区酒仙桥路14号兆维华灯大厦A1-3门三层A328室
info@agricorpchina.com
010-6435-4066
资讯中心
您现在所在位置:首页 > 资讯中心 > 技术专栏
双胎随高产而增加 Twinning Increases With High Production
时间:2018-10-12来源:点击:355分享:
在过去的25年里,荷斯坦的双胎率增加了两倍。产双胎的奶牛面临着一系列风险增加的问题:难产、胎衣不下、子宫炎、真胃移位和酮病。产后还面临下一个泌乳期空怀天数增加和每次怀孕配种次数增加的风险。这些增加了的风险最终造成过早离群或淘汰。


Twinning Increases With High Production

双胎随高产而增加

Jim Dickrell

June 18, 2018 09:18 AM

 

亚达-艾格威  马春生  翻译

lkjhtr.jpg

The rate of twinning in Holsteins has tripled over the past 25 years. The reasons might surprise you. ( Farm Journal, Inc. )

在过去的25年里,荷斯坦的双胎率增加了两倍。原因可能会让你吃惊。(农业期刊公司)

If you think you’re seeing more cows calving with twins, you’re right. The rate of twinning in Holsteins has more than tripled in the past 25 years.

如果你认为你看到更多的奶牛产双胞胎那么你是对的。荷斯坦牛的双胎率在过去25年中增加了两倍多。

Cows that produce 90 lb of milk per day or more are predisposed to produce more twin calves than cows with lower production, says Paul Fricke, a dairy reproduction specialist with the University of Wisconsin. In today’s highly productive herds, that means most cows can be susceptible to higher rates of twinning. And that’s not a good thing.

威斯康辛大学奶牛繁殖专家保罗·弗里克Paul Fricke说,每天产奶90磅(40.86千克)以上的奶牛比产奶量低的更容易生出更多的双胎犊牛。在当今高产的牛群中,这意味着大多数奶牛都容易受到更高双胎率的影响。这不是一件好事。

Cows that have twin calves are at increased risk for a whole host of problems: Calving problems, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum and ketosis. They also, then, are at risk for increased days open and more services per conception in their next lactation. These increased risks sum up to greater chance of early retirement and culling.

产双胎的奶牛面临着一系列风险增加的问题:难产、胎衣不下、子宫炎、真胃移位和酮病。产后还面临下一个泌乳期空怀天数增加和每次怀孕配种次数增加的风险。这些增加了的风险最终造成过早离群或淘汰

微信图片_20181012094453.jpg

The resulting twin calves don’t fare very well either. Twin calves are at higher risk of abortion, stillbirth and reduced birth weight because of shorter gestation length. For those twins who survive, they are then at a disadvantage to grow and thrive into adulthood. Heifers born twin to bull calves are almost always infertile.

由此产生的双胎犊牛也不太好。双胎犊牛的流产、死胎和出生体重下降的风险更高,这是由于妊娠期短造成的。对于那些幸存的双胞胎来说,它们从生长、发育到成年都处于不利的状况。生双胎公犊的青年母牛几乎总是不育。

While there may be a genetic predilection for twinning in the Holstein breed, most of the problem has to do with low progesterone levels at the time of ovulation. And that is being driven by the high rate of feed intake high producing cows need to sustain stratospheric levels of milk production.

尽管荷斯坦品种可能存在双胞胎的遗传倾向,但大多数问题与排卵时孕激素水平低有关这是高产母牛需要维持极高的产奶水平大量摄入饲料造成的。

1539308755856533.jpg

High producing cows will eat well over 50 lb of dry matter per day, and well over 100 lb of feed on an as-fed basis. These high rates of feed intake increase blood flow through the liver, which in turn reduces the amount of progesterone circulating in the blood. Low progesterone, in turn, results in higher rates of double ovulation. Double ovulation does result in higher conception rates, but also more pregnancy losses – and more twins.

高产母牛每天采食50磅(23千克)以上的干物质,在喂饲的基础上(实际饲料量)超过100磅(45.4千克)。这些摄入率高的饲料增加了通过肝脏的血流,这反过来减少了血液中循环的孕酮量。孕酮低反过来导致双排卵率更高。双排卵的确导致受胎率高,但也造成怀孕损失更多和双胞胎更多。

“It’s all about progesterone,” says Fricke. “It’s like you turn on a switch.” At about 40 kilograms of milk production (88 lb), about 25% of cows double ovulate. At 50 kg of milk production (110 lb), more than half of cows will double ovulate.

保罗说:“这都是孕酮的缘故,就像打开双胞胎的开关一样”。在大约40公斤的产奶量(88磅)时,大约有25%的奶牛双排卵。在50公斤的产奶量(110磅)时,一多半奶牛会双排卵。

微信图片_20181012094433.jpg

The fix to the problem is two-fold. The first is strict adherence to heat synchronization protocols. “If you use Ovsynch protocols incorrectly, you can increase twinning,” says Fricke.

解决这个问题的办法有两点。首先是严格遵守同步发情规程。保罗说“如果你应用排卵同步规程Ovsynch (079)不正确,那么就会增加双胎率”。

“If you’re using a Pre-Synch/Ovsynch program and are cherry picking cows to breed based on heat detection, about half of the cows not detected in heat will start the Ovsynch protocol in a low-progesterone environment,” he says. “These cows have an increased risk for double ovulation and twinning, particularly now that we have recommended the second prostaglandin treatment to the Ovsynch protocols.”

他说:“如果你正在使用预同步/排卵同步Pre-Synch/Ovsynch规程,并且是根据发情检测对母牛进行配种,那么没有检测到发情的母牛约有一半会在低孕酮的环境中启动排卵同步Ovsynch规程。”;这些母牛的双排卵和双胎的风险增加,特别是现在我们推荐增加了第二支前列腺素的排卵同步Ovsynch规程(0789)情况下”。

The bigger problem comes in the resynchronization of open cows after breeding. “Ten to 25% of these cows at re-synch don’t have a corpus luteum (CL) and are in a low progesterone environment when they start Ovsynch,” Fricke says. “Don’t put a no-CL cow on a Double Ovsynch protocol that includes the second prostaglandin treatment.”

更大的问题来自配种后空怀母牛的再同步。保罗说:“这些再同步的母牛中有10%到25%没有黄体,这些母牛开始排卵同步规程Ovsynch时处于孕酮环境中。不要把无黄体的母牛纳入增加了第二支前列腺素的双同步规程中”。

At preg check, if a cow does not have a CL, Fricke recommends treating with GnRH and then inserting a CIDR for one week to increase progesterone levels during the protocol. After seven days, remove the CIDR and proceed with the normal Resynch protocol. That should reduce the rate of double ovulation and the chance of twins, he says.

孕检时如果母牛没有黄体CL,保罗建议用促性腺激素释放激素GnRH处理,然后插入阴道栓(赛得宝)CIDR一周,以体高孕酮水平。七天后,取出CIDR并继续执行正常的再同步RESYCH规程他说,这应该会降低双排卵率和双胞胎的几率。


Related Topics: 

Dairy

 

Dairy Reproduction

原文链接:https://www.dairyherd.com/article/twinning-increases-high-production


地址:北京市朝阳区酒仙桥路14号兆维华灯大厦A1-3门三层A328室
邮编:100015
电话:010-6435-4066
传真:010-64358466
友情链接
© 2017 亚达-艾格威 版权所有 冀ICP备13003165号     技术支持:lc787